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What are the composition and working principles of the important components of an electric forklift?

Date: 2022-06-14 View:

 What are the composition and working principles of the important components of an electric forklift?

As the main handling tool in the warehousing industry, the importance of electric forklifts to an enterprise is self-evident, so what are its important components for electric forklifts?

The operation of an electric forklift is inseparable from the battery. The battery provides the energy source, so what provides the power source? Yes, the motor. Let's talk about the composition and working principle of the motor, one of the important components of the electric forklift.

Electronic Power Steering, or EPS for short, uses the power generated by a forklift electric motor to assist the driver in power steering. The composition of EPS, although the structural components of different forklifts are different, they are generally the same. Generally, it is composed of forklift truck accessories such as forklift truck direction (steering) sensor, electronic control unit, electric motor, reducer, mechanical steering gear, and animal battery power supply.

The working principle of electric forklift steering motor: when the forklift is turning, the direction (steering) sensor will "feel" and transmit signals to the control unit of the steering wheel to distribute current to the steering motor to turn the direction, and these signals will be sent to the electronic control unit through the data bus. , the electronic control unit will send action commands to the forklift motor controller according to the data signals such as the transmission torque and the direction to be rotated, so that the forklift motor will output the corresponding torque according to the specific needs, thus generating power steering. If it is not turned, the system will not work, and will be in a standby (sleep) state waiting to be called. Due to the working characteristics of electric power steering, the forklift driver will feel that driving such a forklift has a better sense of direction and is lighter. At the same time, because it does not work when it does not turn, it saves energy consumption to a certain extent.

Since the forklift electric power steering system only needs electricity and no hydraulic pressure, many components are omitted compared with the mechanical hydraulic power steering system. There are no oil pumps, oil pipes, pressure flow control valves, oil storage tanks, etc. required by the hydraulic system. The number of forklift accessories is small, the layout is convenient, and the weight is lighter. And no "parasitic losses" and liquid leakage losses. Therefore, the electric power steering system can save energy by about 80% under various driving conditions, which improves the running performance of the entire electric forklift accessories. Therefore, it has been rapidly promoted in recent years, and it is also the development direction of the power steering system in the future.

In order to ensure the portability of the forklift when turning on the spot or turning at low speed, the displacement of the oil pump is determined by the flow rate of the forklift engine at idle speed. However, most of the time when the forklift is running at a speed higher than idle speed and in a straight line, most of the oil output by the oil pump can only be returned to the oil storage tank through the control valve, causing great "parasitic losses". Therefore, in order to reduce such unnecessary losses, a motor-driven oil pump is used. When the electric forklift is driving straight, the motor runs at a low speed, and when the forklift turns, the motor runs at a high speed. By controlling the speed of the forklift motor, the flow and pressure of the oil pump are adjusted to reduce "parasitic losses".

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