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Brief Analysis of The Formation of Cavitation in Construction Machinery Cylinders

Date: 2023-07-04 View:

 The Cause of Cavitation Formation of Construction Machinery Cylinders

When we repair the hydraulic cylinder of construction machinery,
we can often see that there are some honeycomb-shaped holes
on the inner wall of the hydraulic cylinder,
piston or piston rod surface.This is all due to cavitation.
The hazard of cavitation in hydraulic cylinders is considerable.
This is all due to cavitation.
The hazard of cavitation in hydraulic cylinders is considerable.

1:The main cause of cavitation

Substantive analysis of cavitation

Cavitation is mainly caused by the dry hydraulic cylinder
mixing a certain amount of air into the oil between the piston
and the guide sleeve during the working process.
As the pressure gradually increases,
the gas in the oil will become bubbles,
and when the pressure rises to a certain limit value,
these bubbles will burst under the action of high pressure,
so that the high temperature and high pressure gas quickly act on the surface of the part,
resulting in cavitation in the hydraulic cylinder, resulting in corrosive damage to the part.

►Unqualified hydraulic oil quality leads to cavitation

Ensuring the quality of hydraulic oil is an important factor in preventing cavitation.
If the oil has poor foam resistance, it is easy to foam, which leads to cavitation.
Secondly, the frequency of change of oil pressure is too fast and too high,
which will directly cause the formation of bubbles and accelerate the rupture of bubbles.
Tests have shown that cavitation occurs faster in areas with high pressure change frequency.
Such as hydraulic cylinder in, oil return port, etc.,
due to the frequency phase of pressure change.For higher,
the degree of cavitation is also relatively high and dry other parts.
In addition, overheating of the oil can also increase the chance of cavitation.

Cavitation caused by improper manufacturing and maintenance

Due to the failure to fully vent the hydraulic system during assembly or maintenance,
there is gas in the system, and cavitation can occur
under the action of high temperature and high pressure.

2:Cavitation caused by improper manufacturing and maintenance

Although cavitation has many causes,
cavitation can be avoided as long as necessary measures are taken to actively prevent it.
Let's talk about the precautions that should be taken for the causes of cavitation.

►Strictly control the selection of hydraulic oil

Hydraulic oil is selected in strict accordance with the oil standard.
The selection of good quality hydraulic oil can effectively
prevent bubbles in the hydraulic system during the working process.
When selecting oil, it should be selected according to
the minimum temperature in different regions,
and the hydraulic oil should be filled according to the dipstick standard,
and the hydraulic system should be kept clean
(When filling hydraulic oil, moisture and other impurities should be prevented from being brought in),
and often check the oil quality, oil level and oil color of the hydraulic oil.
If you find that blisters, foam or the oil turns milky white,
you should carefully find the source of the air in the oil and eliminate it in time.

►Prevents excessive oil temperature and reduces hydraulic shock

Reasonable design of the heat dissipation system and prevention of excessive oil temperature
are the keys to maintaining the normal temperature of hydraulic oil.
If an exception occurs, the cause should be found and eliminated in time.
When operating the hydraulic lever and distribution valve,
it is necessary to strive for stability, not too fast, too strong,
and should not frequently increase the engine throttle,
as far as possible to reduce the impact of hydraulic oil on hydraulic components.
At the same time, the cooling system should be maintained in time
to keep the temperature of the cooling system within a suitable range
to reduce the energy released when the bubbles burst.
While not affecting the normal circulation of coolant,
a certain amount of anti-corrosion additives can be appropriately added to inhibit rust.

►Maintain the normal clearance of the mating surfaces of each hydraulic component

 When manufacturing or repairing the main parts of hydraulic cylinders
(such as cylinder blocks, piston rods, etc.),
It should be assembled according to the lower tolerance limit of the assembly size,
which has been proved to be a good way to reduce the occurrence of cavitation.
If the hydraulic components have cavitation,
only the graphic sandpaper polishing technology
can be used to remove the cavitated pockmarks and surface area carbon,
and the general fine sandpaper should not be used for sanding.

►Pay attention to exhaust when repairing

After the maintenance of the hydraulic cylinder,
the hydraulic system should be made to run smoothly for a certain period of time
so that the hydraulic oil in the hydraulic system can be fully circulated;
If necessary, the inlet pipe (or return pipe) of the hydraulic cylinder
can be disassembled to overflow the hydraulic oil
to achieve the effect of exhausting a single hydraulic cylinder.